Download Water Supply Engineering – Environmental Engineering (Volume-1) By Dr. chancromaslodis.ga – Environmental Engineering Volume 1 also known popularly . PDF | On Jun 6, , Abdullah Al-Muyeed and others published Water and Environmental Engineering. and Distribution System · Free Books · Section_I · Section_II · Field Visit Sample Report (Foundation Engineering) · Introduction to Water Supply Engineering.
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Water supply systems, Intakes & Water demand of chancromaslodis.ga book. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Northeastern History and Development of Water Supply System, Bangladesh Scenario, Objectives. We have shared the Water Supply Engineering Lecturer notes in Topic wise pdf. It is more helpful to revise the basics in quick manner.
Good sanitation cannot be maintained without adequate water supply system.
Water supply engineering by B.C.Punmia, Ashok Jain, Arun Jain.pdf
The planning, designing, financing and opera lion of waler and waste water systems are complex undertakings, and they require a high degree o f skill and judgement. The work of conslruction and maintenance o f water supply. The Story of water supply begins with the growth or ancient capital cities, or religious and trade centres. Rig Veda 4 XX years S. C makes a mentio n of digging of wells. Similarly, Ramayana, Mahabhartha and Puranas make mention of wells as the principal source of water supply.
Water was lifted from the -wells through indegenous methods. However, no water treatment or distribution works existed. Joseph's well at Cairo is one of the oldest deep wells excavated in rock to a depth of about feet.
It became necessary, therefore, to store water. The earlier examples are the aqueducts built by Appius Claudius in about S. Tbe earlier water supply structures got destroyp1 , with the aU of Rome. In the twelfth century, small aqueduct was conslructed in Paris. In London, spring water was brought by mea ns of lead pipes and masonry conduits in the thirteenth century.
In Germany. Franciscan monk constructed aqueduct of Zempola in Mexico in ihe middle of 16th century. In The water was conveyed thro ugh lead pipes.
In Paris, pumps operaled by water power were erected in Pumps operating from steam were in - Iroduced in the 18th century in London and Paris. In the United States, spring water was conveyed by gravity to Boslon in Pumps etc. However, purposeful quality control of waters upply is quite recent in origin.
The scientific discoveries and engineering inventio ns of the eighteenth and ninetecth centuries created centralised industries to which people fl ocked for employment.
This caused serio us water s upply and waste disposal problems in the industrial towns. No great 'II schemes of water supply were started until the Indus trial Revolutio n had well passed its first half century. The development o f the large impounding reservoir was largely due to the necessity o f feeding canals constructed during the first phase of the Industrial Revolutio n.
The fi rst water filter was constructed in by John Gibb at Paisley in Scotland. It was a slow sand filter and worked in conjunctio n with a settling basin and roughening filter. Next s uccessful filters were constructed in by Robert Thorn at Greenock. In , James Simpson built sizable fillers for the Chelsea Water Company to improve ils supply from the Thames river. Growth composition an.
Water supply engineering by B.C.Punmia, Ashok Jain, Arun Jain.pdf
The future population P. This method should be used for forecasting population o f those large cities.. From the census data of past 3 or 4 decades. Arithmetical Increase Method This is.
In this method. G raphical comparison method. For each successive future decade. Ratio and correlation rnClhod. Knowing r].. Lei P be the present population and PI be the population after one decade. This method gives higher results since the percent increase never remains constant but. The value of " can be Jound from the expression PO "O -1 '.. The curve ABC Fig. The population of a city will grow until it reaches a saturation"population wbich is established by limit of economic opportunity.
From these. Thus the future population at the end of n decades is given by: The process is repeated fo r the second future decade. From the census data for the past several decades. Then the increment in increase for each decade is found. From D to E. Thus in Fig.
It is clear that for tbe part A I Ht. Fig 5. The curve abc is the first derivative cUlVe indicating the rate of growth. This facto r should be taken into account while computing future population. Both of these curves are S-shapcd and have upper and lower asymptotes.
I P -Po Selecting ' P. Po Eq. According to P.
PoPo P. E Verhulst.
I nl If three pairs of characteristic values Po. The Gomperlz curve and the logistic curve arc both used in establishing long term population trends of large population centres..
O 10 Cl. See example 5. Graphical Extension Method In this method. From the extended part of the curve. It assumes that the city unde r consideratio n will develo p as similar cities developed in thc past. Similar curves are plotted for other cities C. Graphical Comparison Method This method is a variation of the previous method.
The met hod consist of plotting curves of cities that. Ia practice however. The cune of city A can be then be continued shown by dotted line.
The city B having similar oonditiom. For this. For example. These ratios may be used in predicting the future population. Industrial area 8. This method is useful for o nly those areas whose population growth in the past is fairly consistent with that of state or nation..
This method takes into account the regional and nat ional factors affecting poPI. RaUo and Correlation Method The population growt h of a small town or area is rclatcd to big towns or big areas. Population de nsity is generally expressed as number of persons per hectare. Apanmenh The increase in population of big cities bear a direct relationship to the population of the whole stale or country. Each zone Is allowed 10 develop as per master plan only. Crowth eo. TABLE 5. The future population o f each zone.
The population fo recast may be made by proper analysis of these three factors.
Allowing 5 persons per plot. Depending upon conditions or other factors. This met hod is more advantageous because oflhe fact that the to tal water require me nt of the city depends not only for domestic purposes. The population growth of a city depends upon rollowing actors.
Devtlopment programmes.. Uving habits. These factors affect considerably the estimated. Unforeseen faclors. Such as development of new industries. Development of projects of na- tional importance.. Connection of the town with other big cities. Communi'Y life.. Communication links.
Water-Supply Engineering Solutions Manual
Social facilities. This can be done with the help or arithmetical increase metbod and the geometrical increase method. Tourist facilities. Economic factors. The following is the population data of a city. IOg10 PL. AriIJrmdiaU I"". The oomputations about increment.. The total decrease in percent increment for four decades comes out to be Mdlwd Column 6 of Table 5. Ihis figure will be modified as under: In the initial ponion of the census reoords.
The dotted portion o f the curve is the extended part fIOm 1 to 1. From the extended part. The above computatio ns are based on the va lue o f Ix computcd by arithmatic average mClhod.. The computallons about Increase In populat ion per decade and incremen tal increase are done in Table 5. In a town.. OOO t 4. Estimate "the domestic water requirements of this town in the year AD by projecting the population of the town by the increm. Jind the midyear population as Jdh July for a 3rd inter-censal year.
Assuming the census dale as 10th April.. The population of city in successive decennial census. A city has following recorded population Estimate: Provision is sometimes made for domestic animals. Public or civic use. Residential or domestic use. Institutional use. Industrial use. Total water requirements may be divided into the following five categories: Ph" Iibu". Wuhinl the house I. Residential or domestic use The residential or domestic use includes Water requirements for drinking..
S WubID. Water system losses. TABLE Institutional Use The manual on water supply and Treatment recommends the values of water requirements for institutional needs as given in Table 5. For communilies with population 10 above Public or Civic use Water required for public or civic uses may be for the following purposes: For road washing in the municipality area. Water required for maintaining public parks etc. For oomm unilic: Terminal slations " intermediate sl1llions o: Junction slalions and 70 intenned iatc: It is treated as a function of population and may be compuled from the fallowing formulae: Restaurants 70 per sea t 7.
Air pons and sea pon! Nurse"s homes and mediCIIl m quartc: ISO per bed 3. HOIitels m 4. Ollegcs m 6. The minimum limit of fire dema nd is the amount and rate of supply that would extinguish the largest probable fire in the city. The total quantity of water calculated o n yea rly basis is usually very small because.
I res. These are gene rally connected to water supply mains.. Thus for Indian conditiOns. Whe n fire occurs. Each fire hydrant provided for this purpose has three streams. For a fire of moderate nature. Fire hydrants of 15 to 20 em diameter are normally provided on all street corners..
It depends upon bulk. Assuming an average to tal consumption o f litres per capita per day. For a city of o ne lac population.
In''''' p. Table Tcnile Tonne erode: Joodo -". The recommended minimum values for Ihe above formula arc: The fore cast for this demand will be based on nature and magnitude of each industry and the potent ial for its expansion. The quantity of water required depends upon the type ofindustry. II may be determined from the following expression: Induslrial use The presence of industries in or near the cily has great impact on the water demand.
TARtE 5. The Ouctuations in demand depends u"pon the size of the city.. Water System Losses Losses from a water distribution system consists of i leakage and over-now fro m service reservo irs. In a large city. In the case of a well maintained. OOO using various formulae. Example 5. Compute the 'fire demand ' for a city hailing popula- lion of J. In a system where Ihe supply is partly metered lfor domestic connections and partly un-metered for municipal taps.
Lusses in the supply lines are mainly doe to defect ive pipe joints.. Water rales. Poor-quality waleT results in a reduction in use. Pressure in the supply. Enforcement of lawn sprinkling regula- tions can reduce peak demands s ignificantly. System of supply. Some common values are as under:. The higher the Sianda rd of living is. Use of water increases when sewers a re installed in an area previously without the m.
These variations are "expressed as perceDtale of the annual average daily consumption. LaWII sprinkling.
Extremes of heal and cold cause variations in demand. Age of communily. If the cOmmunity is loca led in h OI climate. The fiuclualion in usc in an industrial community is normally much smaller than in a residential community. Maximum hourly consumption. Maximum daily consumption. Let the annual average consumption in a city be litres per capita per day In most of the Indian cities. The average consumption is shown by the dotted. Maximum monlhly COnswnplion.
Maximum seasonal consumption. A convenient formula for estimating consumption is given by R. Ihe filter units are designed for 1. Sedimmlalioa limb tutd water ratJnloirs.
If they arc run only for r hours in a day. The I excess water during the slack demand period is slored in a service reservoir. The filter units as well as pumping units are designed for The second alternative is generally followed.
It depends upon bulk. The Services may be used only by you, and you may not rent, lease, lend, sub-license, or transfer the Services or any of your rights under this Agreement to anyone else.
Tcnile Tonne erode: Poor-quality waleT results in a reduction in use.