Ebola disease is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. • The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and then spreads in the human population through. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in North Kivu and Ituri The outbreak remains active in Beni, Mabalako and Mandima health zones. Of these, two tested positive for Ebola virus, Zaire ebolavirus species, by .. chancromaslodis.ga?ua=1. IHR travel measures and.

Ebola Virus Pdf

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PDF | Ebola virus is transmitted to people as a result of direct contact with body fluids containing virus of an infected patient. The incubation period usually lasts 5 . Ebola is a serious illness that is caused by a virus. •. A virus is a tiny germ that you cannot see with the naked eye. •. More than half of the people who become. An epidemic of Ebola virus disease is occurring in Western Africa on a scale not seen before, .. pdf and chancromaslodis.ga

Ebola prevention It is still unknown how individuals are infected with Ebola, so stopping infection is still difficult.

Preventing transmission is achieved by: ensuring all healthcare workers wear protective clothing implementing infection-control measures, such as complete equipment sterilization and routine use of disinfectant isolation of Ebola patients from contact with unprotected persons Thorough sterilization and proper disposal of needles in hospitals are essential in preventing further infection and halting the spread of an outbreak.

Ebola tends to spread quickly through families and among friends as they are exposed to infectious secretions when caring for an ill individual.

The virus can also spread quickly within healthcare settings for the same reason, highlighting the importance of wearing appropriate protective equipment, such as masks, gowns, and gloves.

What causes Ebola? Ebola is caused by viruses in the Ebolavirus and Filoviridae family.

Ebola Virus

Ebola is considered a zoonosis, meaning that the virus is present in animals and is transmitted to humans. How this transmission occurs at the onset of an outbreak in humans is unknown.

In Africa, people have developed Ebola after handling infected animals found ill or dead, including chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope, and porcupines. Person-to-person transmission occurs after someone infected with Ebolavirus becomes symptomatic.

As it can take between 2 and 21 days for symptoms to develop, a person with Ebola may have been in contact with hundreds of people, which is why an outbreak can be hard to control and may spread rapidly. How does Ebola transmission occur in humans? When an Ebola infection occurs in humans, the virus can be spread in several ways to others.

Above is a list of ways Ebola can and cannot be transmitted. Transmission of Ebola between humans can occur through: Direct contact through broken skin and mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs, or other body fluids of infected people.


Indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. Exposure to contaminated objects, such as needles.

Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased. In Africa, wild animals including fruit bats are hunted for food and are referred to as bushmeat.

However, the high rates of death in these species resulting from EBOV infection make it unlikely that these species represent a natural reservoir for the virus. Index cases of EVD have often been close to recently deforested lands.

This damage occurs due to the synthesis of Ebola virus glycoprotein GP , which reduces the availability of specific integrins responsible for cell adhesion to the intercellular structure and causes liver damage, leading to improper clotting. The widespread bleeding that occurs in affected people causes swelling and shock due to loss of blood volume.

EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defenses. The GP forms a trimeric complex , which tethers the virus to the endothelial cells.


The sGP forms a dimeric protein that interferes with the signaling of neutrophils , another type of white blood cell. This enables the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation.

Immune system evasion Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.This enables the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation. Both interferes with the signaling of neutrophils and aids the virus to evade gene products, sGP and transmembrane GP, possess discreet host immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation biochemical and biological properties which render distinctly which ordinarily supports viral clearance.

Ebola research paper-academia. For high-risk individuals such as contacts and contacts of contacts, the new SAGE recommendations advise the use of 0.

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Collectively, haemorrhagic fever, Marburg haemorrhagic fever and others, these results indicate that there is a complex interaction between malaria, typhoid, shigellosis, rickettsial diseases like typhus, EBOV and host immune system. Dendritic cells, which are primarily responsible for NK cells and sustained T cell cytokine RNA levels resulting in viral initiation of adaptive immune responses, are a major site where the antigen clearance [27].

This was done to evaluate the possibility of virus being present at levels lower than the limit of detection of the tissue culture infectious dose50 TCID50 assay performed in Vero E6 cells per the ASTM standard. A general deterioration of the security situation, and the persistence of pockets of community mistrust exacerbated by political tensions and insecurity, especially over the past four weeks, have resulted in recurrent temporary suspension and delays of case investigation and response activities in affected areas, reducing the overall effectiveness of interventions.

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