HOFSTEDE CULTURES AND ORGANIZATIONS PDF

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Cultures and. Organizations. SOFTWARE OFTHE MIND. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. Geert Hofstede. Gert Jan Hofstede. Michael. Hofstede, Geert H. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind / Geert Hofstede. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN SUMMARY. EADM — Executive Book Summary. By GEERT HOFSTEDE AND. GERT JAN HOFSTEDE. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind.


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Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind by Geert Hofstede & Gert Jan Hofstede. ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Geeert Hofstede: Ph.D. in social psychology. During the 's and 's, Geert Hofstede, a social scientist who later ran the Institute for. Research on Intercultural Cooperation at the. University of Limburg. Geert Hofstede: Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind. , Maidenhead, U.K.: McGraw-Hill. pages. Alfred Kieser. Jniversity of. Mannheim.

Each country in this model is characterized by a score on each of the four dimensions. Individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: Collectivism as its opposite pertains to societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive ingroups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.

Masculinity indicates the extent to which the dominant values of a society are "masculine" e. Masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct i. Femininity pertains to societies in which social gender roles overlap i.

Uncertainty avoidance can be defined as the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations and try to avoid such situations.

This feeling is, among other things, expressed through nervous stress and in a need for predictability: Added later: Confucian dynamism or long-term vs. Inequalities among people should be Inequalities among people are both expected minimized and desired 2. There should be, and there is to some extent, Less powerful people should be dependent interdependence between less and more on the more powerful; in practice, less powerful people powerful people are polarized between dependence and counterdependence 3.

Parents treat children as equals Parents teach children obedience 4. Children treat parents as equals Children treat parents with respect 5. Teachers expect initiatives from students in Teachers are expected to take all initiatives class in class 6. Teachers are experts who transfer Teachers are gurus who transfer personal impersonal truths wisdom 7.

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Students treat teachers as equals Students treat teachers with respect 8. More educated persons hold less Both more and less educated persons show authoritarian values than less educated almost equally authoritarian values persons 9. Hierarchy in organizations means an Hierarchy in organizations reflects the inequality of roles, established for existential inequality between higher- ups convenience and lower-downs Decentralization is popular Centralization is popular Narrow salary range between top and bottom Wide salary range between top and bottom of organization of organization Subordinates expect to be consulted Subordinates expect to be told what to do The ideal boss is a resourceful democrat The ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat or good father Small power distance Large power distance 1.

The use of power should be legitimate and is Might prevails over right: Skills, wealth, power, and status need not go Skills, wealth, power, and status should go together together 3. The middle class is large The middle class is small 4. All should have equal rights The powerful have privileges 5. Powerful people try to look less powerful Powerful people try to look as impressive as than they are possible 6.

Power is based on formal position, expertise, Power is based on family or friends, and ability to give rewards charisma, and ability to use force 7. The way to change a political system is by The way to change a political system is by changing the rules evolution changing the people at the top revolution 8.

The use of violence in domestic politics is Domestic political conflicts frequently lead rare to violence 9. Pluralist governments based on outcome of Autocratic or oligarchic governments based majority votes on cooptation Political spectrum shows strong center and Political spectrum, if aJlowed to be weak right and left wings manifested, shows weak center and strong wings Small income differentials in society, further Large income differentials in society, further reduced by the tax system increased by the tax system Prevailing religions and philosophical Prevailing religions and philosophical systems stress equality systems stress hierarchy and stratification Prevailing political ideologies stress and Prevailing political ideologies stress and practice power sharing practice power struggle Identity is based in the social network to Identity is based in the individual which one belongs 3.

Children learn to think in terms of 'we' Children learn to think in terms of 'I' 4. Harmony should always be maintained and Speaking one's mind is a characteristic of an direct confrontations avoided honest person 5. High-context communication Low-context communication 6.

Trespassing leads to shame and loss of Trespassing leads to guilt and loss of self- face for self and group respect 7. Purpose of education is learning how to do Purpose of education is learning how to learn 8.

Relationship employer-employee is Relationship employer-employee is a perceived in moral terms, like a family link contract supposed to be based on mutual advantage Hiring and promotion decisions take Hiring and promotion decisions are employees' ingroup into account supposed to be based on skills and rules only Management is management of groups Management is management of individuals Collective interests prevail over Individual interests prevail over individual interests collective interests 2.

Private life is invaded by group s Everyone has a right to privacy 3. Opinions are predetermined by group Everyone is expected to have a private membership opinion 4. Laws and rights differ by group Laws and rights are supposed to be the same for all 5.

Dominant role of the state in the Restrained role of the state in the economic system economic system 7. Economy based on collective interests Economy based on individual interests Political power exercised by interest Political power exercised by voters groups 8.

Press controlled by the state Press freedom 9. Imported economic theories largely Native economic theories based on irrelevant because unable to deal with pursuit of individual self-interests collective and particularist interests Ideologies of equality prevail over Ideologies of individual freedom prevail ideologies of individual freedom over ideologies of equality Dominant values in society are Dominant values in society are material caring for others and preservation success and progress 2.

People and warm relationships are important Money and things are important 3. Everybody is supposed to be modest Men are supposed to be assertive, ambitious, and tough 4. Both men and women are allowed to be tender Women are supposed to be tender and to and to be concerned with relationships take care of relationships 5. In the family, both fathers and mothers deal In the family, fathers deal with facts and with facts and feelings mothers with feelings 6.

Both boys and girls are allowed to cry but Girls cry, boys don't; boys should fight neither should fight back when attacked, girls shouldn't fight 7. Sympathy for the weak Sympathy for the strong 8. Average student is the norm Best student is the norm 9.

Failing in school is a minor accident Failing in school is a disaster Friendliness in teachers appreciated Brilliance in teachers appreciated Boys and girls study same subjects Boys and girls study different subjects Work in order to live Live in order to work Managers use intuition and strive for consensus Managers expected to be decisive and assertive Stress on equality, solidarity, and quality of Stress on equity, competition among work life colleagues, and performance Welfare society ideal Performance society ideal 2.

The needy should be helped The strong should be supported 3. Permissive society Corrective society 4. Small and slow are beautiful Big and fast are beautiful 5. Preservation of the environment Maintenance of economic growth should have should have highest priority highest priority 6.

Government spends relatively large Government spends relatively small proportion of proportion of budget on budget on development assistance to poor development assistance to poor countries countries 7. Government spends relatively small Government spends relatively large proportion of proportion of budget on armaments budget on armaments 8. International conflicts should be International conflicts should be resolved by a resolved by negotiation and show of strength or by fighting compromise 9.

A relatively large number of women A relatively small number of women in elected in elected political positions political positions Dominant religions stress the Dominant religions stress the male prerogative complementarity of the sexes Uncertainty is a normal feature of life The uncertainty inherent in life is felt as a and each day is accepted as it comes continuous threat which must be fought 2.

Low stress; subjective feeling of High stress; subjective feeling of anxiety wellbeing 3. Aggression and emotions should not Aggression and emotions may at proper times be shown and places be ventilated 4. Comfortable in ambiguous situations Acceptance of familiar risks; fear of ambiguous and with unfamiliar risks situations and of unfamiliar risks 5.

Lenient rules for children on what is Tight rules for children on what is dirty and taboo dirty and taboo 6. What is different, is curious What is different, is dangerous 7. Students comfortable with open- Students comfortable in structured learning ended learning situations and situations and concerned with the right answers concerned with good discussions 8.

Teachers may say 'I don't know' Teachers supposed to have all the answers 9. There should not be more rules than Emotional need for rules, even if these will never is strictly necessary work Time is a framework for orientation Time is money Comfortable feeling when lazy; hard- Emotional need to be busy; inner urge to work working only when needed hard Precision and punctuality have to be Precision and punctuality come naturally learned Tolerance of deviant and innovative Suppression of deviant ideas and behavior; ideas and behavior resistance to innovation Few and general laws and rules Many and precise laws and rules 2.

If rules cannot be respected, they If rules cannot be respected, we are sinners should be changed and should repent 3. Citizen competence versus Citizen incompetence versus authorities authorities 4. Citizen protest acceptable Citizen protest should be repressed 5. Citizens positive towards Citizens negative towards institutions institutions 6.

Civil servants positive towards Civil servants negative towards political political process process 7.

Tolerance, moderation Conservatism, extremism, law and order 8. Positive attitudes towards young Negative attitudes towards young people people 9. Regionalism, internationalism, Nationalism, xenophobia, repression of attempts at integration of minorities minorities Belief in generalists and common Belief in experts and specialization sense Many nurses, few doctors Many doctors, few nurses One group's truth should not be There is only one Truth and we have it imposed on others Human rights: In philosophy and science, tendency In philosophy and science, tendency towards relativism and empiricism towards grand theories Hofstede LTO ranks.

Based on observations of Dr. LTO, see Chapter 7; other dimensions based on descriptive information. Varga and Kolman et al Hoppe Nasierowski and Mikula and Kolman et aI MAS, Hofstede et al ; other dimensions, observation, and descriptive data. MAS, Hofstedeet al. Kolman et al Surinam: Nanhekhan Punnett, Singh, and Williams Vielnam: Decentralized decision processes, overlapping responsibilities and multiple channels of information permitted dealing better with external complexity, overcoming the internal tensions and responding more rapidly and more flexibly to new challenges.

Although overall the matrix structure never experienced the success that had been anticipated, in countries like Germany and France it encountered special difficulties. In France this was because the matrix structure violates the principle of unity of command and hierarchical line.

In Germany it was because it goes against the absolute need for clear structures, information channels, roles and responsibilities. Maslow defended the existence of five basic human needs, forming a hierarchy comprising physiological, safety, social nature, esteem and self- actualisation needs. Those of a higher level are active and may be motivating, when the inferior ones are satisfied. What Maslow thought were universal needs of any human being, and what is taught in management manuals, proved in reality to be valid only for the North Americans and some nations of similar cultural characteristics.

In countries of high uncertainty avoidance, safety needs may be much more important than Maslow thought, the job for the whole life is more important than having a more interesting and challenging position.

In countries with a low level of masculinity, social needs will tend to be more important, the same holding in less individualist countries more collective. Cultures and Organizations, p. Cloth, usually imported from Asian countries, was printed in multicolored patterns according to the desires of customers, firms producing fashion clothing for the local market.

The company was run by a general manager to whom three functional managers reported: The total work force numbered about The working climate in the firm was often disturbed by conflicts between the sales and manufacturing managers. The manufacturing manager had an interest, as manufacturing managers have the world over, in smooth production and in minimizing product changes.

He preferred grouping customer orders into large batches. The worst was changing from a dark color set to a light one, because every bit of dark-colored dye left would show on the cloth and spoil the product quality. Therefore the manufacturing planners tried to start on a clean machine with the lightest shades and gradually move towards darker ones, postponing the need for an overall cleaning round as long as possible.

The design and sales manager tried to satisfy his customers in a highly competitive market. These customers, fashion clothing firms, were notorious for short-term planning changes. As their supplier, the printing company often received requests for rush orders. Even when these orders were small and unlikely to be profitable the sales manager hated to say 'no'. The customer might go to a competitor and then the printing firm would miss that big order which the sales manager was sure would come afterwards.

The rush orders, however, usually upset the manufacturing manager's schedules and forced him to print short runs of dark color sets on a beautifully clean machine, thus forcing the production operators to start cleaning allover again.

There were frequent hassles between the two managers over whether a certain rush order should or should not be taken into production. The conflict was not limited to the department heads; production personnel publicly expressed doubts about the competence of the sales people and vice versa. In the cafeteria, production and sales people would not sit together , although they had known each other for years. The people involved react according to their mental software.

Part of this mental software consists of people's ideas about what an organization should be like. From the four dimensions of national culture power distance and uncertainty avoidance in particular affect our thinking about organizations. Organizing always demands the answering of two questions: The answer to the first question is influenced by cultural norms of power distance; the answer to the second question, by cultural norms about uncertainty avoidance.

The remaining two dimensions, individualism and masculinity, affect our thinking about people in organizations, rather than about organizations themselves.

Power distance and uncertainty avoidance have been plotted against each other in the Figure and if the above analysis is correct, the position of a country in this diagram should tell us something about the way to solve organizational problems in that country.

There is empirical evidence for the relationship between a country's position within the PDI-UAI matrix, and models of organizations implicit in the minds of people from those countries which affect the way problems are tackled. In the s Owen James Stevens, an American professor at INSEAD business school in Fontainebleau, France, used as an examination assignment for his organizational behavior course a case study very similar to the one presented at the beginning of this chapter.

This case, too, dealt with a conflict between two department heads within a company. In the Figure we find their countries in the lower right, lower left, and upper left quadrants, respectively.

Stevens had noticed earlier that the students' nationality seemed to affect their way of handling this case. He had kept a file of the examination work of about students, in which, with regard to the case in question, the students had written down, individually 1 their diagnosis of the problem and 2 their suggested solution. Stevens had sorted these exams by the nationality of the author, and he went separately through all French, all German, and all British answers. The results were striking.

The French in majority diagnosed the case as negligence by the general manager to whom the two department heads reported.

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Failing in school is a minor accident Failing in school is a disaster Friendliness in teachers appreciated Brilliance in teachers appreciated Boys and girls study same subjects Boys and girls study different subjects Work in order to live Live in order to work Managers use intuition and strive for consensus Managers expected to be decisive and assertive Stress on equality, solidarity, and quality of Stress on equity, competition among work life colleagues, and performance II: politics and ideas Feminine Masculine 1.

Welfare society ideal Performance society ideal 2. The needy should be helped The strong should be supported 3. Permissive society Corrective society 4. Small and slow are beautiful Big and fast are beautiful 5.

Preservation of the environment Maintenance of economic growth should have should have highest priority highest priority 6. Government spends relatively large Government spends relatively small proportion of proportion of budget on budget on development assistance to poor development assistance to poor countries countries 7.

Government spends relatively small Government spends relatively large proportion of proportion of budget on armaments budget on armaments 8.

International conflicts should be International conflicts should be resolved by a resolved by negotiation and show of strength or by fighting compromise 9. A relatively large number of women A relatively small number of women in elected in elected political positions political positions Dominant religions stress the Dominant religions stress the male prerogative complementarity of the sexes I: general norm, family, school, and workplace Weak uncertainty avoidance Strong uncertainty avoidance 1.

Uncertainty is a normal feature of life The uncertainty inherent in life is felt as a and each day is accepted as it comes continuous threat which must be fought 2. Low stress; subjective feeling of High stress; subjective feeling of anxiety wellbeing 3. Aggression and emotions should not Aggression and emotions may at proper times be shown and places be ventilated 4.

Comfortable in ambiguous situations Acceptance of familiar risks; fear of ambiguous and with unfamiliar risks situations and of unfamiliar risks 5. Lenient rules for children on what is Tight rules for children on what is dirty and taboo dirty and taboo 6. What is different, is curious What is different, is dangerous 7. Students comfortable with open- Students comfortable in structured learning ended learning situations and situations and concerned with the right answers concerned with good discussions 8.

Teachers may say 'I don't know' Teachers supposed to have all the answers 9. There should not be more rules than Emotional need for rules, even if these will never is strictly necessary work Time is a framework for orientation Time is money Comfortable feeling when lazy; hard- Emotional need to be busy; inner urge to work working only when needed hard Precision and punctuality have to be Precision and punctuality come naturally learned Tolerance of deviant and innovative Suppression of deviant ideas and behavior; ideas and behavior resistance to innovation II: politics and ideas Weak uncertainty avoidance Strong uncertainty avoidance 1.

Few and general laws and rules Many and precise laws and rules 2.

If rules cannot be respected, they If rules cannot be respected, we are sinners should be changed and should repent 3. Citizen competence versus Citizen incompetence versus authorities authorities 4. Citizen protest acceptable Citizen protest should be repressed 5. Citizens positive towards Citizens negative towards institutions institutions 6. Civil servants positive towards Civil servants negative towards political political process process 7. Tolerance, moderation Conservatism, extremism, law and order 8.

Positive attitudes towards young Negative attitudes towards young people people 9. Regionalism, internationalism, Nationalism, xenophobia, repression of attempts at integration of minorities minorities Belief in generalists and common Belief in experts and specialization sense Many nurses, few doctors Many doctors, few nurses One group's truth should not be There is only one Truth and we have it imposed on others Human rights: nobody should be Religious, political, and ideological persecuted for their beliefs fundamentalism and intolerance In philosophy and science, tendency In philosophy and science, tendency towards relativism and empiricism towards grand theories LTO ranks.

Based on observations of Dr. Bangladesh: LTO, see Chapter 7; other dimensions based on descriptive information. Bulgaria: based on observation and descriptive information. Hungary: Varga and Kolman et al Luxembourg: observation and clustering in European Union data. Malla: Hoppe Romania: MAS, Hofstede et al ; other dimensions, observation, and descriptive data. Russia: MAS, Hofstedeet al. Slovakia: Kolman et al Surinam: Nanhekhan Trinidad: Punnett, Singh, and Williams Vielnam: observation and descriptive information.

Decentralized decision processes, overlapping responsibilities and multiple channels of information permitted dealing better with external complexity, overcoming the internal tensions and responding more rapidly and more flexibly to new challenges.

Although overall the matrix structure never experienced the success that had been anticipated, in countries like Germany and France it encountered special difficulties.

In France this was because the matrix structure violates the principle of unity of command and hierarchical line. In Germany it was because it goes against the absolute need for clear structures, information channels, roles and responsibilities.

Maslow defended the existence of five basic human needs, forming a hierarchy comprising physiological, safety, social nature, esteem and self- actualisation needs. Those of a higher level are active and may be motivating, when the inferior ones are satisfied. What Maslow thought were universal needs of any human being, and what is taught in management manuals, proved in reality to be valid only for the North Americans and some nations of similar cultural characteristics.

In countries of high uncertainty avoidance, safety needs may be much more important than Maslow thought, the job for the whole life is more important than having a more interesting and challenging position. In countries with a low level of masculinity, social needs will tend to be more important, the same holding in less individualist countries more collective. Cloth, usually imported from Asian countries, was printed in multicolored patterns according to the desires of customers, firms producing fashion clothing for the local market.

The company was run by a general manager to whom three functional managers reported: one for design and sales, one for manufacturing, and one for finance and personnel. The total work force numbered about The working climate in the firm was often disturbed by conflicts between the sales and manufacturing managers. The manufacturing manager had an interest, as manufacturing managers have the world over, in smooth production and in minimizing product changes. He preferred grouping customer orders into large batches.

The worst was changing from a dark color set to a light one, because every bit of dark-colored dye left would show on the cloth and spoil the product quality. Therefore the manufacturing planners tried to start on a clean machine with the lightest shades and gradually move towards darker ones, postponing the need for an overall cleaning round as long as possible.

The design and sales manager tried to satisfy his customers in a highly competitive market. These customers, fashion clothing firms, were notorious for short-term planning changes. As their supplier, the printing company often received requests for rush orders. Even when these orders were small and unlikely to be profitable the sales manager hated to say 'no'.

The customer might go to a competitor and then the printing firm would miss that big order which the sales manager was sure would come afterwards. The rush orders, however, usually upset the manufacturing manager's schedules and forced him to print short runs of dark color sets on a beautifully clean machine, thus forcing the production operators to start cleaning allover again. There were frequent hassles between the two managers over whether a certain rush order should or should not be taken into production.

The conflict was not limited to the department heads; production personnel publicly expressed doubts about the competence of the sales people and vice versa. In the cafeteria, production and sales people would not sit together , although they had known each other for years. The people involved react according to their mental software. Part of this mental software consists of people's ideas about what an organization should be like.

From the four dimensions of national culture power distance and uncertainty avoidance in particular affect our thinking about organizations. Organizing always demands the answering of two questions: 1 who has the power to decide what? The answer to the first question is influenced by cultural norms of power distance; the answer to the second question, by cultural norms about uncertainty avoidance.

The remaining two dimensions, individualism and masculinity, affect our thinking about people in organizations, rather than about organizations themselves. Power distance and uncertainty avoidance have been plotted against each other in the Figure and if the above analysis is correct, the position of a country in this diagram should tell us something about the way to solve organizational problems in that country. There is empirical evidence for the relationship between a country's position within the PDI-UAI matrix, and models of organizations implicit in the minds of people from those countries which affect the way problems are tackled.

In the s Owen James Stevens, an American professor at INSEAD business school in Fontainebleau, France, used as an examination assignment for his organizational behavior course a case study very similar to the one presented at the beginning of this chapter. This case, too, dealt with a conflict between two department heads within a company.

In the Figure we find their countries in the lower right, lower left, and upper left quadrants, respectively. Stevens had noticed earlier that the students' nationality seemed to affect their way of handling this case.

He had kept a file of the examination work of about students, in which, with regard to the case in question, the students had written down, individually 1 their diagnosis of the problem and 2 their suggested solution. Stevens had sorted these exams by the nationality of the author, and he went separately through all French, all German, and all British answers. The results were striking. The French in majority diagnosed the case as negligence by the general manager to whom the two department heads reported.

The solution preferred by the French was for the opponents to take the conflict to their common boss, who would issue orders for settling such dilemmas in the future. Stevens interpreted the implicit organization model of the French as a 'pyramid of people': the general manager at the top of the pyramid, and each successive level at its proper place below.

The majority of the Germans diagnosed the case as a lack of structure. The competence of the two conflicting department heads had never been clearly laid down. The solution preferred by the Germans was the establishment of procedures. Ways to develop these could be calling in a consultant, nominating a task force, or asking the common boss.

The Germans, Stevens felt, saw an organization ideally as a 'well-oiled machine' in which management intervention is limited to exceptional cases because the rules should settle all daily problems. The majority of the British diagnosed the case as a human relations problem.

The two department heads were poor negotiators, and their skills in this respect should be developed by sending them on a management course, preferably together. The implicit model of an organization in the minds of the British, Stevens thought, was a 'village market' in which neither hierarchy nor rules, but the demands of the situation, determine what will happen. Stevens' experience happened to coincide with the discovery, in the context of the IBM research project, of power distance and uncertainty avoidance as dimensions of country cultures.

These two dimensions resembled those found a few years earlier through a piece of academic research commonly known as the 'Aston Studies'. Among the researchers involved were Derek S. Pugh, David J. Hickson, Roy L. Payne, Diana C. Pheysey, and John Child see Pugh and Hickson, The Aston Studies represented a large-scale attempt to assess quantitatively, that is to measure, key aspects of the structure of different organizations. At first the research was limited to the UK, but later it was replicated in a number of other countries.

The principal conclusion from the Aston Studies was that the two major dimensions along which structures of organizations differ are 'concentration of authority' and 'structuring of activities'. It did not take much imagination to associate the first with power distance, and the second with uncertainty avoidance.

The Aston researchers had tried to measure the 'hard' aspects of organizational structure: objectively assessable characteristics. Power distance and uncertainty avoidance indices measure soft, subjective characteristics of the people within a country.

A link between the two would mean that organizations are structured in order to meet the subjective cultural needs of their members. Stevens' implicit models of organization in fact provided the proof.

French INSEAD MBA students with their 'pyramid of people' model, coming from a country with large power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance, advocated measures to concentrate the authority and structure the activities. Germans with their 'well-oiled machine' model, coming from a country with strong uncertainty avoidance but small power distance, wanted to structure the activities without concentrating the authority.

British INSEAD MBA students with a 'village market' model and a national culture characterized by small power distance and weak uncertainty avoidance, advocated neither concentrating authority nor structuring activities-and all of them were dealing with the same case study. People with international business experience have confirmed many times over that, other things being equal, French organizations do concentrate authority more, German ones do need more structure, and people in British ones do believe more in resolving problems ad hoc.

Stevens' three implicit models leave one quadrant in the Figure unexplained. The upper right-hand corner contains no European countries, only Asian and African ones.

A discussion of Stevens' models with Indian and Indonesian colleagues led to the suggestion that the equivalent implicit model of an organization in these countries is the extended 'family', in which the owner-manager is the omnipotent grand father. It corresponds to large power distance but weak uncertainty avoidance, a situation in which people would resolve the conflict described by permanent referral to the boss: concentration of authority without structuring of activities.

D from a prestigious American university: 'What is most important for me and my department is not what I do or achieve for the company, but whether the Master's favor is bestowed on me. This I have achieved by saying "yes" to everything the Master says or does. To contradict him is to look for another job. I left my freedom of thought in Boston. Everyone is supposed to be involved in decision-making.

The professors who wrote the theories are children of a culture: they grew up in families, went to schools, worked for employers. Their experiences represent the material on which their thinking and writing have been based.

Scholars are as human and as culturally biased as other mortals. For each of the four corners of the Figure a classical author described organizations in terms of the model belonging to his corner of the diagram: the pyramid, the machine, the market, or the family. The four are approximate contemporaries; all were born in the mid-nineteenth century. Henri Fayol was a French engineer whose management career culminated in the position of president- directeur-generat of a mining company.

After his retirement he formulated his experiences in a pathbreaking text on organization: Administration industrielle et generate. On the issue of the exercise of authority Fayol wrote: 'We distinguish in a manager his statutory authority which is in the office, and his personal authority which consists of his intelligence, his knowledge, his experience, his moral value, his leadership, his service record, etc.

For a good manager , personal authority is the indispensable complement to statutory authority. In Fayol's conception the authority is both in the person and in the rules the statute. We recognize the model of the organization as a pyramid of people with both personal power and formal rules as principles of coordination. Max Weber was a German academic with a university training in law and some years' experience as a civil servant.

He became a professor of economics and a founder of German sociology.The four basic problem areas represent dimensions of cultures.

Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory

Victor would greatly enhance your understanding of the theories and concepts expounded by Dr. Press controlled by the state Press freedom 9. In the Figure we find their countries in the lower right, lower left, and upper left quadrants, respectively. Together they form a four-dimensional 4-D model of differences among national cultures. It corresponds to large power distance but weak uncertainty avoidance, a situation in which people would resolve the conflict described by permanent referral to the boss: concentration of authority without structuring of activities.

Small income differentials in society, further Large income differentials in society, further reduced by the tax system increased by the tax system A lower degree of this index short-term indicates that traditions are honored and kept, while steadfastness is valued.

A discussion of Stevens' models with Indian and Indonesian colleagues led to the suggestion that the equivalent implicit model of an organization in these countries is the extended 'family', in which the owner-manager is the omnipotent grand father. For a good manager , personal authority is the indispensable complement to statutory authority.

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